The history of viticulture and winemaking is almost as old as the whole world. Wild grapes (vitissilvestris) have been found in excavations. Changes in the global wine market take place at the end of the 20th century.
A characteristic feature of these changes is the emergence and rapid development of wines from countries where they were known only in local markets. It was then that the division into the New and Old World of wine appeared. The Old World is Europe - France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Germany, where wine traditions go back to ancient times, and wine has become an element of consumer culture. The New World includes wines from Australia, the USA, Chile, Argentina and South Africa, where viticulture and winemaking have been developing on a global scale for only several decades.
Unfortunately, there is no clear answer to the question of what determines the price of wine. The wine market is very diversified. Depending on the accepted criterion, the wine market can be divided into many categories. In marketing, the concept of market segments is used, that is, relatively homogeneous groups of products (product segmentation - from the supply side) or consumers (segmentation from the demand side), which differ on the basis of specific characteristics for which the company prepares and directs its offer. A whole set of tools known as a marketing toolkit is used, such as price, product, promotion or distribution. Segmentation of the wine market can be based on several marketing criteria: segmentation by price, market rules, consumer profile or product characteristics. Looking at the prices for wine in the store, we are surprised at their variety. In supermarket chains in Ukraine, consumers find wines from France, Spain, Italy, USA, Germany, Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, Australia, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, Georgia and other countries. The price difference is huge, up to several hundred percent. As for Ukrainian production, it is most often produced in Crimea, Odessa, Nikolaev, Kherson, Transcarpathian and other regions. In Ukraine (Kharkov, Rovno, Chernivtsi, Uzhgorod, Lutsk, Ternopil, Khmelnitsky, Zhitomir, Chernigov, Cherkassy, Krivoy Rog, Zaporozhye, Sumy, Kropyvnytskyi, Poltava, Kherson, Nikolaev), both homemade and purchased wine is popular. The greatest demand is for red wine, semi-sweet, natural. Among the major wine producers are: Inkerman factory, Koblevo, Evpatoria, Shabo and Massandra. The import of wine in Ukraine is insignificant, since the leading role is played by domestic enterprises (there are about 50 of them in Ukraine).
There is an opinion that expensive products should be of higher quality. Is this the case with wine? An often quoted anecdote is about how Ernest Gallo, the founder of the largest California wine company in the world, sold wine in New York in his early years. He offered the customer two glasses of the same red wine. The merchant tasted the wine and asked for prices. Ernest Gallo named the price of the first
a sample of wine, which is 5 cents a bottle and another 10 cents a bottle. The merchant replied that he wanted wine for 10 cents. The merchant attributed the higher price to the higher quality wine, when in fact the wine was the same. A large selection of wines of different types from different countries often prevents the consumer from soberly evaluating, choosing a wine and accepting its price.
The question "What do you most often consider when buying wine" turned out to be very interesting. For 66% of respondents, this motivation is recommendations on wine blogs and portals, 60% buy wine out of curiosity that they have not tried. However, stock prices are the driving force in only 25% of purchases.
Overall, market research shows a very optimistic picture of wine drinkers. This is a group of active people, open to new tastes, who devote a lot of time and money to this passion. It is this million people who actually run the wine market in Ukraine, and their preferences can be considered a harbinger of changes that will soon appear in a wider consumer group.
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